book as we begin in Latin America with a case study on Simon Bolivar. Was he "El Liberator" or a dictator?
6: Independence movements (1763–1830)
This section focuses on the various forces that contributed to the rise of the independence movements,
the similar and different paths that the movements followed, and the immediate effects of independence
in the region. It explores the political, intellectual and military contributions of their leaders, and
the sometimes contradictory views that shaped the emergence of the new nations.
• Independence movements in the Americas: political, economic, social and religious causes; the
influence of Enlightenment ideas; the role of foreign intervention; conflicts and issues leading to war
• Political, intellectual and military contributions of leaders to the process of independence:
Washington, Bolivar and San Martin
• United States: processes leading to the Declaration of Independence; influence of ideas; nature of
the declaration; military campaigns/battles and their impact on the outcome Syllabus content 50
• Latin America: characteristics of the independence processes; reasons for the similarities and differences in two Latin American countries; military campaigns/battles and their impact on the outcome
• Attitude of the United States towards Latin American independence; nature of, and reasons for, the Monroe Doctrine
• Impact of independence on the economies and societies of the Americas: economic cost of the wars of independence; the establishment of new trade relations; impact on different social groups— specifically indigenous peoples, African Americans, Creoles